At the end of the spanish - American War, under the terms of Treaty of Paris (1898),
Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States in exchange of 20 million United
States dollars. When it became clear to the natives that American forces intended to
occupy and control the country, revolts broke out. At a constitutional convention held
against the wishes of American authorities, Aguinaldo was declared President of the
Philippine Republic. The U.S. refused to recognize any Philippine right to self -
government, and on February 4, 1899, Aguinaldo declared war against the United States
for denying their independence. In the U.S., there was a movement to stop the war; some
said that U.S. had no right to a land whose people wanted self - government.
Filipinos and an increasing number of American historians refer to this hostilities as
the Philippine - American War (1899 - 1913), and in 1999 the U.S. Library of Congress
reclassified its references to use this term. In 1901, Aguinaldo was captured and swore
allegiance to the United States. A large American military force was needed to occupy
the country, and would be regularly engaged in war, against Filipino rebels, for another
decade. An estimated 250,000 Filipinos were killed by the U.S. Forces in the attempt to
put down the forces favoring independence.
Some measures of the Filipino self - rule were allowed, however. The first legislative
assembly was elected in 1907. A bicameral ligislature, largely under Philippine control,
was established. A civil service was formed and was gradually taken over by the
Filipinos, who had effectively gained control by the end of the World War I.
In 1934, the American Tydings - McDuffie Act granted the Philippine Independence by
1946. On May 14, 1935, an election to fill the newly created office of the President of the
government was formed on the basis of the U.S. Constitution.